Małgorzata Żyła - Mroczkowska

Małgorzata Mroczkowska-Żyła



We are ready to prepare tailor-made products according to your needs. Please contact us at

We produce and develop variety of materials:


  • AIIIBV single crystals: GaAs, InAs, GaP, InP, GaSb
  • Other materials: SiC, Bi2Te3, Bi2Se3, BTS, BST
  • Oxides: Y3Al5O12, Lu3Al5O12, LuAP, Gd3Al2Ga3O12, YAlO3, GdCa4O(BO3)3, YVO4, Yb: CALGO, TSAG, MALO, YAG: V3+, YAG: Cr4+, YAG: Co2+



We sell in different forms and shapes tailored to your needs:


  • polished epi-ready wafers
  • wafers diced into smaller parts
  • pieces of other shapes: i. e. oriented seeds
  • cubes and targets
  • polycrystalline boules


We share our knowledge with academic users


  • know-how on the synthesis crystal growth and Chemico-Mechanical Processing (CMP) of our materials.

Products & Services

  • Terbium Scandium Aluminum Garnet (TSAG) crystal is a key isolator material for next generation fiber laser.
  • TSAG:  magneto-optic crystal ideal for visible and infrared regions.
  • TSAG advantages: excellent thermal and mechanical properties, high Verdet constant.
  • Verdet constant: a measure of the strength of the Faraday effect
    in a particular material, a large constant = strong Faraday effect,
    material suitable for building an optical isolator.





Optical isolators

  • NLO materials – allow us to change color of a light beam, its shape
    in space and time, and to create the shortest events made by humans.
  • NLO materials example – Magnesium Aluminate Spinel doped with Cobalt (MgAl2O4: Co, MALO), Yttrium Aluminium Garnet doped with Vanadium (YAG: V3+), Chromium (YAG: Cr4+) or Cobalt (YAG: Co2+).
  • MALO, a non-linear absorber, used in microlasers with 10 kW impulse and rangefinder cameras up to several kilometers range.




Nonlinear Optical (NLO) Materials

  • Grown by Liquid Encapsulated Czochralski (LEC)
  • Diameter 2" or 3” or 4’’
  • Orientation <100> or <111> or <110> or <310>
  • Available types and their parameters
    - doped with Tellurium (Te), Tin (Sn), Silicon (Si)
    n-type [n = 1017 to 1019 cm-3]
    - doped with Zinc (Zn)
    p-type [p = 1017 to 1019 cm-3]
    - doped with Chromium (Cr)
    Semi-Insulating (SI) [r > 107 W cm]
    - undoped
    SI [r > 107 W cm; µ > 6 x 103 cm2 / Vs]







  • Gallium Arsenide is a semiconductor compound used in diodes, field-effect transistors (FETs), and integrated circuits (ICs).
  • Gallium Arsenide can be used as a surface-field THz emitter.
  • Gallium Arsenide applications
    • microwave integrated circuits
    • infrared light-emitting diodes
    • laser diodes
    • solar cells
    • optical windows
    • THz applications

Gallium Arsenide (GaAs)

  • Grown by LEC
  • Diameter 2" or 3”
  • Orientation <100> or <111>
  • Available types and their parameters
    - undoped
    n-type [n < 2 x 1016 cm-3; µ > 2 x 104 cm2 / Vs]
    - doped with Sulfur (S)
    n-type [n = 1 x 1017 to 5 x 1019 cm-3; µ > 3 x 103 cm2 / Vs]
    - doped with Zinc (Zn)
    p-type [p = 1 x 1017 to 5 x 1019 cm-3; µ > 80 cm2 / Vs]







  • Indium Arsenide is a direct bandgap material used for construction of infrared detectors,
    for the wavelength range of 1–3.8 µm.
  • The detectors are usually photovoltaic photodiodes.
  • Cryogenically cooled detectors have lower noise, but InAs detectors can be used in higher-power applications at room temperature as well.
  • Indium Arsenide applications:
    • infrared detectors, photovoltaic photodiodes, cryogenically cooled, high-power
    • diode lasers
    • THz radiation source and quantum dots
    • Faraday Rotators

Indium Arsenide (InAs)

  • Grown by LEC
  • Diameter 2" or 3”
  • Orientation <100> or <111> or <110>
  • Available types and their parameters
    - undoped SI [r > 107 W cm]
    - undoped n-type [n < 2 x 1016 cm-3; µ > 150 cm2 / Vs]
    - doped with Sulfur (S)
    n-type [n = 2 x 1017 to 5 x 1018 cm-3; µ > 90 cm2 / Vs]
    - doped with Zinc (Zn)
    p-type [p = 5 x 1017 to 5 x 1018 cm-3]
    - doped with Cadmium (Cd)
    p-type [p = 2 x 1016 to 3 x 1017 cm-3]
    - doped with Chromium (Cr) SI [r > 107 W cm]





  • Gallium Phosphide is used in manufacturing
    low-cost red, orange, and green light-emitting
    diodes (LEDs)
    with low to medium brightness.
  • Gallium Phosphide can be used in the optical switches. Optical switch is a key component in the nowadays optical network.
  • Gallium Phosphide applications:
    - low-cost LEDs, red, orange, and green
    light-emitting diodes
    - THz applications, emitters and detectors
    - optical switches

Gallium Phosphide (GaP)

Oxide examples

  • rare earth garnets such as Yttrium Aluminum Garnet (Y3Al5O12), Lutetium Aluminium Garnet (Lu3Al5O12), Gadolinum Aluminium Galium Garnet (Gd3Al2Ga3O12)
  • peroskites such as Yttrium Orthoaluminate (YAlO3) doped with neodymium (Nd) or other lanthanides, gadolinium-calcium oxide (GdCa4O(BO3)3), and orthovanadate crystals (YVO4)







  • Scintillators
  • active materials for lasers
  • Optical isolators
  • Passive Q-modulators of laser resonators
  • nonlinear optical materials
  • base materials
  • Substrates for various types of electronic structures

Materials for optoelectronics

  • Scintillators – materials that exhibits scintillation, the property
    of luminescence, when excited by ionizing radiation.
  • Scintillator example – Lutetium Aluminum Perovskite (LuAlO3 , LuAP) doped with Cerium (Ce).
  • Ioninizing radiation sensors in the Positron Emission Tomography (PET).

Scintillating materials


  • Active material example: Ytterbium-doped Calcium Aluminum Gadolinium Oxide (Yb: CaGdAlO4, Yb: CALGO).
  • Yb: CALGO application: widely used in laser processing applications, e. g. femtosecond thin-disk oscillator in a femtosecond laser.
  • Yb: CALGO: highly effective laser medium for high power ultrafast lasers.
  • Dopant level can be controlled to optimize pumping requirements.

Active materials for lasers

  • Grown by LEC
  • Diameter 2" or 3”
  • Orientation <100> or <111>
  • Available types and their parameters
    - undoped
    n-type [n = 5 x 1015 to 2 x 1016 cm-3]
    - doped with Sulfure (S) or with Tin (Sn)
    n-type [n = 2 x 1017 to 1 x 1019 cm-3]
    - doped with Zinc (Zn)
    p-type [p = 5 x 1017 to 1 x 1019 cm-3]
    - doped with Iron (Fe)
    SI [r > 107 W cm; µ > (2 x 103) cm2 / Vs]






  • Indium Phosphide (InP) is used to produce
    efficient lasers, sensitive photodetectors
    and modulators
    in the wavelength window typically used for telecommunications,
    i.e., 1550 nm wavelengths, as it is a direct
    bandgap III-V compound semiconductor material.
  • Indium Phosphide is used for THz generation along with Gallium Arsenide due to their high efficiency.
  • Indium Phosphide applications
    - fabrication of laser diodes and LEDs
    - heterojunction bipolar transistors
    for optoelectric integration
    - solar cells
    - THz applications

Indium Phosphide (InP)

  • Grown by modified Czochralski method
  • Diameter 2" or 3”
  • Orientation <100> or <111>
  • Available types and their parameters
    - undoped
    p-type [p < 2 x 1017 cm-3; µ > 600 cm2 / Vs]
    - doped with Silicone (Si)
    p-type [p = 4 x 1017 to 1 x 1019 cm-3; µ > 250 cm2 / Vs]
    - doped with Zinc (Zn)
    p-type [p = 2 x 1018 to 1 x 1019 cm-3; µ > 250 cm2 / Vs]
    - doped with Tellurium (Te)
    n-type [n = 1 x 1017 to 1 x 1018 cm-3; µ > 2500 cm2 / Vs]





  • Gallium Antimonide is a crystal grown
    gallium source used to produce sputtering
    and deposition sources and as a
    substrate material for various semiconductor
    and photo-optic materials.
  • Thermally treated Gallium Antimonide
    can be used as a surface-field THz emitter
    with an efficiency comparable to Gallium Arsenide.
  • Gallium Antimonide applications
    - infrared detectors
    - infrared LEDs
    - lasers
    - transistors
    - THz applications

Gallium Antimonide (GaSb)


  • Silicon Carbide is used in semiconductor electronics devices that operate at high temperatures or high voltages, or both.
  • Gallium Nitride (GaN) – direct competitor, higher operating frequency, worse heat conduction, lower availability, so SiC is better for high-power energetics.





  • Consumer electronics:
    • Personal Computer Power Supplies
    • Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS)
  • Hybrid / Electric Vehicles
  • Industry
    • AC / DC & DC / AC switch
    • Transmission of electricity
    • Rail vehicles
    • Renewable energy sources
    • Electric motor (inverter)
Silicon Carbide (SiC)

Silicon Carbide (SiC)

  • Bismuth Telluride (Bi2Te3), Bismuth Selenide (Bi2Se3), Bismuth Telluride Selenide (BTS), Bismuth Antimony Telluride (BST), doped or undoped







  •  Automotive industry heat energy recoveryin internal combustion engines
  • Radioisotope generators - space industry
    of electricity in space probes
  • Combined solar and thermogenerator systems, use of a wider - green energy range of radiation frequencies
Thermoelectric materials

Thermoelectric materials

Other materials >>>

Oxides >>>

 AIIIBV single crystals >>>

AIIIBV single crystals

Other materials

Ensemble3 sp. z o.o.

01-919  Warsaw
133 Wólczyńska St.

NIP 1182211096

KRS 0000858669 


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